|Basic InformationMore InformationLatest NewsQuestions and AnswersLinksBook Reviews|100 Things Guys Need to Know3 NBS of Julian DrewA Guide to Asperger SyndromeA Tribe ApartA User Guide to the GF/CF Diet for Autism, Asperger Syndrome and AD/HDA Walk in the Rain With a BrainAdolescent DepressionAfterAggression and Antisocial Behavior in Children and AdolescentsAll Alone in the UniverseAmelia RulesAmericaAnother PlanetAntisocial Behavior in Children and AdolescentsArtemis FowlAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAutistic Spectrum DisordersBad GirlBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond Diversity DayBig Mouth & Ugly GirlBill HensonBipolar DisordersBody Image, Eating Disorders, and ObesityBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBoyBoysBrandedBreaking PointBreathing UnderwaterBringing Up ParentsBullying and TeasingCan't Eat, Won't EatCatalystChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren Changed by TraumaChildren with Emerald EyesChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness City of OneConcise Guide to Child and Adolescent PsychiatryConquering the Beast WithinContentious IssuesCrackedCutDancing in My NuddypantsDemystifying the Autistic ExperienceDescartes' BabyDilemmas of DesireDirtyDoing ItDoing SchoolDying to Be ThinEating an ArtichokeEducating Children With AutismElijah's CupEllison the ElephantEmerald City BluesEmotional and Behavioral Problems of Young ChildrenEvery Girl Tells a StoryFast GirlsFeather BoyFiregirlForever YoungFreaks, Geeks and Asperger SyndromeFreewillGeography ClubGeorgia Under WaterGirl in the MirrorGirlfightingGirlsourceGirlWiseGLBTQGood GirlsGoodbye RuneGranny Torrelli Makes SoupGrowing Up GirlHandbook for BoysHealing ADDHeartbeatHelping Children Cope With Disasters and TerrorismHelping Parents, Youth, and Teachers Understand Medications for Behavioral and Emotional ProblemsHollow KidsHow Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow to Keep Your Teenager Out of Trouble and What to Do If You Can'tHug MeIntrusive ParentingIt's Me!It's Perfectly NormalJake RileyJoey Pigza Swallowed the KeyJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKeeping the MoonKilling MonstersKim: Empty InsideKnocked Out by My Nunga-NungasLaura Numeroff's 10-Step Guide to Living with Your MonsterLearning About School ViolenceLeo the Lightning BugLet Kids Be KidsLiberation's ChildrenLife As We Know ItLisa, Bright and DarkLittle ChicagoLord of the FliesLoserLove and SexLove That DogManicMastering Anger and AggressionMind FieldsMiss American PieMom, Dad, I'm Gay.MonsterMore Than a LabelMyths of ChildhoodNew Hope for Children and Teens with Bipolar DisorderNo Two AlikeNot Much Just Chillin'Odd Girl OutOdd Girl Speaks OutOf Mice and MetaphorsOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOne Hot SecondOne in ThirteenOphelia SpeaksOphelia's MomOur Journey Through High Functioning Autism and Asperger SyndromeOut of the DustOvercoming School AnxietyParenting and the Child's WorldParenting Your Out-Of-Control TeenagerPediatric PsychopharmacologyPeriod PiecesPhobic and Anxiety Disorders in Children and AdolescentsPINSPraising Boys WellPraising Girls WellPretty in PunkPrincess in the SpotlightProblem Child or Quirky Kid?Psychotherapy As PraxisPsychotherapy for Children and AdolescentsRaising a Self-StarterRaising BlazeRaising Resilient ChildrenReclaiming Our ChildrenRedressing the EmperorReducing Adolescent RiskRethinking ADHDReweaving the Autistic TapestryRineke DijkstraRitalin is Not the Answer Action GuideRunning on RitalinSay YesSexual Teens, Sexual MediaShooterShort PeopleShould I Medicate My Child?Skin GameSmackSmashedStaying Connected to Your TeenagerStick FigureStoner & SpazStop Arguing with Your KidsStraight Talk about Your Child's Mental HealthStrong, Smart, & BoldStudent DepressionSurvival Strategies for Parenting Children with Bipolar DisorderSurviving OpheliaTaking Charge of ADHD, Revised EditionTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeen Angst? NaaahThat SummerThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook Of Child And Adolescent PsychiatryThe Arctic IncidentThe Bipolar ChildThe Buffalo TreeThe Bully, the Bullied, and the BystanderThe Carnivorous CarnivalThe Depressed ChildThe Developing MindThe Dragons of AutismThe Dream BearerThe Dulcimer Boy The Einstein SyndromeThe EpidemicThe Eternity CubeThe Explosive ChildThe Field of the DogsThe First IdeaThe Identity TrapThe Inside Story on Teen GirlsThe Little TernThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Men They Will BecomeThe Myth of LazinessThe New Gay TeenagerThe Notebook GirlsThe Nurture AssumptionThe Opposite of InvisibleThe Order of the Poison OakThe Other ParentThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Real Truth About Teens and SexThe Rise and Fall of the American TeenagerThe Secret Lives of GirlsThe Sex Lives of TeenagersThe Shared HeartThe Spider and the BeeThe StepsThe Thought that CountsThe Unhappy ChildThe Vile VillageThe Whole ChildThen Again, Maybe I Won'tTherapy with ChildrenThings I Have to Tell YouTouching Spirit BearTrauma in the Lives of ChildrenTreacherous LoveTrue BelieverTwistedUnhappy TeenagersWay to Be!We're Not MonstersWhat about the KidsWhat Would Joey Do?What's Happening to My Body? Book for BoysWhat's Happening to My Body? Book for GirlsWhen Nothing Matters AnymoreWhen Sex Goes to SchoolWhen Your Child Has an Eating DisorderWhere The Kissing Never StopsWhose America?Why Are You So Sad?WinnicottWorried All the TimeYes, Your Teen Is Crazy!You Hear MeYoung People and Mental HealthYour Child, Bully or Victim?
by John B. Reid, Gerald R. Patterson and James J. Snyder
American Psychological Association, 2002
Review by Lloyd A. Wells, Ph.D., M.D. on Oct 1st 2002
This book is the result of an effort of more than
forty years, at the University of Oregon, to identify causes and treatments of
antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. It is a rather dry book, and will receive little acknowledgment
apart from professionals in the field who read it, but it is, in fact, a
fantastic accomplishment. For one
thing, few research projects continue over this sort of time span, and the data
are voluminous and very helpful. For another,
the findings in this book, if applied at all rigorously, could significantly
decrease antisocial behavior in young people.
It is sad that the data probably will not be systematically applied
across the country.
The studies reported in this book began in the
1960s, with the aim of developing approaches to help antisocial children and
adolescents. Most of the studies
reported have been prospective, and some have gone on for many years. The authors and contributors take the view
that antisocial actions are shaped largely by social phenomena especially
within the family and they have excellent data to back up this approach. They propose a developmental model of
conduct that is very useful and interesting, albeit incomplete.
The book begins with a history of the Oregon model
of the development of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents, going
back to the 1960s. In contrast to
several modern views that look for the origins of this behavior within the
child herself or himself, this model examines the environment of the child
especially the family, and the way that the environment reinforces maladaptive,
antisocial behavior. Although the
theory may be old-fashioned, the authors argue successfully that theirs is a
theory of aggression that works. There
is, indeed, abundant evidence in support of it that is presented in the rest of
the multi-authored book.
next section of the book examines coercion theory, the way that antisocial
behavior develops in the context of the type of coercive environment that the
child grows up in. I would argue
against the use of the term coercive
because of its connotations. The
authors would maintain, I believe, that all childhood environments are
inherently coercive, and that it is the style of coercion that is problematic. The authors have good data for dispositions
by caregivers and styles of coercive environments during the first year of life
as being linked to antisocial behavior.
Different authors next address the concept of competence (and mastery)
in early development. This is highly
linked, in a robust research study, with the quality of attachment, which is a
predictor of future positive peer interactions. In addition, children with early, positive peer interactions are
unlikely to become antisocial later.
The next chapter in this section examines the familys role in
reinforcing the development of antisocial behavior. Lack of familial problem-solving and inconsistent or mean
discipline are associated with an increased risk of antisocial behavior, in
long-term, well-designed studies, although much remains to be learned about
this phenomenon. A subsequent chapter
examines the role of the peer group which is very powerful in reinforcing
antisocial behavior. Contextual factors
such as parental unemployemnt, family income, parental depression, and lower
academic achievement by parents also play a role, and this situation carries
into the next generation and beyond, unfortunately. In another chapter, Patterson and others present data suggesting
that early-onset antisocial behavior is of much more significance than
late-onset (adolescent) antisocial behavior and should be prioritized in the
social/criminal justice systems.
After an interesting chapter on depression and its
role, Reid and Eddy write an overview of interventions, which is very
good. They view microsocial processes
as the target of interventiion and have an admirable rationale for doing
this. They argue strongly for a
family-based treatment model. This is
followed by an excellent chapter on treatment interventions in foster care
situations, with a major research agenda over the next two decades, a chapter
on prevention during the elementary school years (the well known LIFT project),
shown to at least delay onset of serious antisocial behavior, a chapter on
social interventions with families of divorce, also quite promising, and,
finally, an excellent chapter on a family-centered prevention strategy based in
Patterson then adds a final chapter speculating
about extension of the models depicted in the book, with excellent graphics.
The book concludes with a very lengthy and useful
list of references and a fine index.
This book has many positives. It presents lengthy research by a committed
group over many years, with interesting and heuristic results and ideas for
further research. The findings are
incomplete but compelling, as far as they go.
There are negatives. The social view presented is too restrictive. There are many biological correlates and
perhaps precipitants of antisocial behavior, well researched but largely
ignored in the book. The psychological
vantage point is also very limited. The
writing style is, for the most part, decent, but no more than that, and some of
the chapters require rather careful reading because of intricate research
For philosophers and philosophically inclined
psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers, there are unstated but
should we take a social phenomenon (coercive parenting) and insist that it is
an individual syndrome (conduct disorder, oppositional-defiant disorder)?
the data on adolescent antisocial behavior as a multigenerational and largely
social phenomenon, what is the individual responsibility of the individual
recommend the book!
© 2002 Lloyd A. Wells
A. Wells, Ph.D., M.D., is a child and adolescent psychiatrist at the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota. He has a
particular interest in philosophical issues related to psychiatry and in the
logic used in psychiatric discourse.