Homosexuality & Bisexuality
Basic Information

Homosexuality & Bisexuality

What is the meaning of LGBT?

The terms lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) describe distinct groups within the gay culture. The early initiatives for people who were gay focused mostly on men. So, in an attempt to draw attention to issues specific to gay women, "lesbian" is often listed first.

People who are bisexual or transgender have been traditionally left out of, or underrepresented in, research studies and health initiatives. It is now considered standard to include these two groups along with gay men and lesbians.

What is sexual orientation?

According to researchers Susan Cochran and Vickie Mays, sexual orientation includes the following dimensions: sexual attraction; sexual behavior; sexual fantasies; emotional, social, and lifestyle preferences; and self-identification [1].

Definition of Terms

The term "gay" has traditionally been used to represent a diverse grou...

 
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What does LGBT mean?

  • The terms lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) describe distinct groups within the gay culture.
  • The term "gay" has traditionally been used to represent a diverse group or people who are attracted to people of the same gender or are in a relationship with someone of the same gender. It is important to recognize, however, that different groups within the gay community exist, and that the term "gay" is not all-inclusive.
  • Heterosexual, or straight, refers to people whose sexual and romantic feelings are mostly for the opposite gender: Men who are attracted to women, and women who are attracted to men.
  • Homosexual, or gay, refers to people whose sexual and romantic feelings are mostly for the same gender: Men who are attracted to men, and women who are attracted to women.
  • Lesbian refers to women who are homosexual.
  • Bisexual or "bi" refers to people whose sexual and romantic feelings are for both genders.
  • Transgender is an umbrella term that encompasses a diversity of gender expression including drag queens and kings, bi-genders, crossdressers, transgenderists, and transsexuals.
  • Transvestites are people who like to dress like members of the opposite sex.
  • Transsexuals are people who feel that their anatomical sex does not match the gender with which they identify.
  • Bigender refers to people who define themselves as having the behavioral, cultural or psychological characteristics associated with both the male and female genders.
  • Transgenderist describes someone who is gender variant or transgresses gender norms as part of their lifestyle or identity.

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What health information should gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men be aware of?

  • Just like all other men, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men need to know how to protect their health throughout their life.
  • For all men, heart disease and cancer are the leading causes of death.
  • However, compared to other men, gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men are additionally affected by:
    • Higher rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs);
    • Tobacco and drug use;
    • Depression.
  • Your sexual health is important. There are a number of tests you can get to help you know your status and, if you have HIV or an STD, get treatment.
  • Learn the other steps you can take to protect your health.

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What health information should lesbian and bisexual women be aware of?

  • All women have specific health risks, and can take steps to improve their health through regular medical care and healthy living.
  • Research tells us that lesbian and bisexual women are at a higher risk for certain problems than other women are, though.
  • It is important for lesbian and bisexual women to talk to their doctors about their health concerns.
  • Lesbians and bisexual women have a higher rate of obesity, smoking, and stress. All of these are risk factors for heart disease.
  • Several factors put lesbian and bisexual women at higher risk for developing some cancers.
  • Lesbian and bisexual women report higher rates of depression and anxiety than other women do. Bisexual women are even more likely than lesbians to have had a mood or anxiety disorder.
  • There are a lot of things that can cause health problems for lesbians and bisexual women. Some of these may be outside of your control. Other things you can work to improve upon.
  • Learn the steps you can take to protect your health.

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What are the top health issues for transgender people?

  • Available research related to physical health issues among transgender people is extremely limited and mainly conducted abroad.
  • Studies of how medical interventions, such as hormone therapy and/or sexual reassignment surgeries, affect overall physical health and well-being remain extremely limited.
  • Numerous studies have suggested that between 16 to 60 percent of transgender people are victims of physical assault or abuse, and between 13 to 66 percent are victims of sexual assault.
  • Intimate partner violence has also been found to be a prominent issue for transgender people.
  • Studies have shown that suicidal ideation is widely reported among transgender people and can range from 38 to 65 percent. More alarmingly, studies have also found that suicide attempts among transgender people can range from 16 to 32 percent.
  • Data about the prevalence of mental health disorders such as depression, anxiety, and other clinical conditions among transgender people are extremely limited.
  • Alcohol and substance abuse has been identified as a major concern among transgender people.
  • High rates of tobacco use, specifically cigarette smoking, have also been found among transgender people. Some studies suggest that tobacco use rates can range from 45 to 74 percent.
  • The HIV/AIDS epidemic has had a significant effect on transgender people. However, due to a lack of systematic surveillance and reporting of HIV prevalence rates among transgender people, the exact prevalence of HIV among this population remains unknown.

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