Child & Adolescent Development: Overview

An Overview of Child Development Theories

Child & Adolescent Development: Overview

This topic center provides a review of theories of child development. For information on parenting and child development of infants aged 0 to 2, please visit our Infant Parenting and Child Development topic center. For information on parenting and child development of preschool children (early childhood aged 3 to 7, please visit our Early Childhood Parenting and Child Development topic center. For information on parenting and child development of middle childhood children (ages 8 to 11), please visit our Middle Childhood Parenting and Development center. For information on parenting adolescents (ages 12-24), please visit our Child Development Theory: Adolescence topic center and Parenting and Child Development Theory: Adolescence topic center.More

Fast Facts: Learn! Fast!

What are the main child development areas?

  • There are four main areas or channels in which children grow: physical, psychological and cognitive, social and emotional, and sexuality and gender identity.
  • Children's bodies grow in height and weight over the years and change appearance during puberty.
  • Children also develop certain physical abilities during their progression towards adulthood, including crawling, walking, running and (possibly) writing or shooting a basketball.
  • Children develop psychologically and cognitively as their brains absorb more information and they learn how to use that information.
  • Children grow socially and emotionally and they learn how to interact, play, work, and live with other people such as family, friends, teachers, and employers.
  • They learn how to understand both their own feelings and others' emotions and ways of dealing with strong emotions.
  • Children must develop a sense of self-esteem as they go through the long process of figuring out what shape their identity, or who they are, will take.
  • They also develop a sense of morality as they learn the difference between right and wrong.
  • Finally, children have to develop sexually and form a gender identity.
  • Early on, children learn how their bodies work and look and what it means to be a boy or a girl; they learn how boys and girls are different.
  • As they grow older and enter adolescence and puberty, they continue to learn how their bodies work sexually and how to responsibly handle their sexuality so as to balance their sexual desires and appropriate behavior.

For more information

What is Sigmund Freud's theory of child development?

  • Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was a Viennese doctor who came to believe that the way parents dealt with children's basic sexual and aggressive desires would determine how their personalities developed and whether or not they would end up well-adjusted as adults.
  • Freud described children as going through multiple stages of sexual development, which he labeled Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital.
  • In Freud's view, each stage focused on sexual activity and the pleasure received from a particular area of the body.
  • In the oral phase, children are focused on the pleasures that they receive from sucking and biting with their mouth.
  • In the Anal phase, this focus shifts to the anus as they begin toilet training and attempt to control their bowels.
  • In the Phallic stage, the focus moves to genital stimulation and the sexual identification that comes with having or not having a penis.
  • Another part of Freud's theory focused on identifying the parts of consciousness.
  • Freud thought that all babies are initially dominated by unconscious, instinctual and selfish urges for immediate gratification which he labeled the Id.
  • As babies attempt and fail to get all their whims met, they develop a more realistic appreciation of what is realistic and possible, which Freud called the "Ego".
  • Over time, babies also learn about and come to internalize and represent their parents' values and rules, which he called the "Super-Ego."
  • The Super-Ego is the basis for the the child's conscience that struggles with the concepts of right and wrong and works with the Ego to control the immediate gratification urges of the Id.
  • By today's rigorous scientific standards, Freud's psychosexual theory is not considered to be very accurate, but it is still important and influential today because it was the first stage development theory that gained real attention, and many other theorists used it as a starting place.

For more information

What is Erik Erikson's theory of child development?

  • Erik Erikson (1902-1994) used Freud's work as a starting place to develop a theory about human stage development from birth to death.
  • Erikson focused on how peoples\' sense of identity develops; how people develop or fail to develop abilities and beliefs about themselves which allow them to become productive, satisfied members of society.
  • Because Erikson's theory combines how people develop beliefs psychologically and mentally with how they learn to exist within a larger community of people, it's called a 'psychosocial' theory.
  • Erikson's stages are, in chronological order in which they unfold: trust versus mistrust; autonomy versus shame and doubt; initiative versus guilt; industry versus inferiority; identity versus identity confusion; intimacy versus isolation; generativity versus stagnation; and integrity versus despair.
  • Each stage is associated with a time of life and a general age span.
  • For each stage, Erikson's theory explains what types of stimulation children need to master that stage and become productive and well-adjusted members of society and explains the types of problems and developmental delays that can result when this stimulation does not occur.

For more information

What is Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of child development?

  • Lawrence Kohlberg (1927-1987) described three stages of moral development which described the process through which people learn to discriminate right from wrong and to develop increasingly sophisticated appreciations of morality.
  • Kohlberg believed that his stages were cumulative and that each built off understanding and abilities gained in prior stages.
  • According to Kohlberg, moral development is a lifelong task, and many people fail to develop the more advanced stages of moral understanding.
  • Kohlberg's first 'preconventional' level describes children whose understanding of morality is essentially only driven by consequences.
  • Second stage 'conventional' morality describes people who act in moral ways because they believe that following the rules is the best way to promote good personal relationships and a healthy community.
  • The final 'postconventional' level describes people who instead of just following rules without questioning them, determine what is moral based on a set of values or beliefs they think are right all the time.

For more information

What is Jean Piaget's theory of child development?

  • Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1990), created a cognitive-developmental stage theory that described how children's ways of thinking developed as they interacted with the world around them.
  • Piaget's theory has four stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational.
  • During the sensorimotor stage, which often lasts from birth to age two, children are just beginning to learn how to learn. The major tasks occurring during this period involve children figuring out how to make use of their bodies, which they do by experiencing everything with their five senses.
  • During the preoperational stage, which often lasts from ages two though seven, children start to use mental symbols to understand and to interact with the world, and they begin to learn language and to engage in pretend play.
  • In the concrete operational stage that follows, lasting from ages seven through eleven, children gain the ability to think logically to solve problems and to organize information they learn.
  • During the formal operational stage, which often lasts from age eleven on, adolescents learn how to think more abstractly to solve problems and to think symbolically (for example, about things that aren't really there concretely in front of them).

For more information

What is Urie Bronfenbrenner's theory of child development?

  • Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005) developed the ecological systems theory to explain how everything in a child and the child's environment affects how a child grows and develops.
  • He labeled different aspects or levels of the environment that influence children's development, including the microsystem, the mesosystem, the exosystem, and the macrosystem.
  • The microsystem is the small, immediate environment the child lives in and includes any immediate relationships or organizations they interacts with, such as their immediate family or caregivers and their school or daycare.
  • The mesosystem describes how the different parts of a child's microsystem work together for the sake of the child.
  • The exosystem level includes the other people and places that the child herself may not interact with often herself but that still have a large effect on her, such as parents' workplaces, extended family members, the neighborhood, etc.
  • The macrosystem is the largest and most remote set of people and things to a child but which still has a great influence over the child, such as the relative freedoms permitted by the national government, cultural values, the economy, wars, etc.

For more information


News Articles

  • Health Tip: Help Kids Develop Healthy Ambition

    Offer encouragement, but don't overdo it More...

  • Mice May Be Key to Kids' Asthma Attacks at School

    Study suggests, but can't prove, that rodent allergens could play a role. More...

  • PCPs Order More Food Allergen Panels Than Allergists

    Primary care providers order significantly more food allergen panels and generate higher costs per patient than allergists, according to a review published online Nov. 30 in Pediatrics. More...

  • NIAAA Two-Question Alcohol Screen Valid in Pediatric ERs

    The National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism two-question alcohol screen is valid for use within pediatric emergency departments, according to a study published online Nov. 29 in Pediatrics. More...

  • Health Tip: Build Your Child's Healthy Plate

    Make sure the child has nutritious meals More...

  • 45 More
    • RSNA: Children Can Sustain Major Chest Injuries From ATV Crashes

      For young people who ride all-terrain vehicles without a helmet, the risk of head trauma is an established and serious concern; however, these vehicles may also pose a high risk for severe chest injuries, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, held from Nov. 27 to Dec. 2 in Chicago. More...

    • Pediatricians Can Help When Parents Divorce: Report

      More than 1 million kids a year affected in the U.S., and doctors can ease the transition, group says. More...

    • Martial Arts Can Be Hazardous to Kids

      Certain practices put children at risk of serious injury, pediatricians' group warns. More...

    • U.S. Kids Are Eating Healthier Now, But . . .

      Their salt intake has risen and veggies are still shunned, study finds. More...

    • Keep Kids in Mind When Politics Intrude at Thanksgiving

      Heated political discussions can frighten children, psychiatrists warn. More...

    • 'Enthusiastic' Dads May Mean Less Troubled Kids: Study

      A man's enjoyment, confidence in his role as father seemed even more important than time spent. More...

    • More U.S. Kids Getting Drug-Resistant Infections

      Finding highlights growing problem of antibiotic resistance. More...

    • Physical Punishment of Children Declining in the United States

      Spanking and hitting children to discipline them has been on the decline among U.S. parents -- rich and poor alike -- since 1988, according to research published online Nov. 14 in Pediatrics. More...

    • Stressed Childhood Might Raise Risk for High Blood Pressure Later

      And second study found link to family history. More...

    • Health Tip: Encourage Kids to Choose Good Friends

      Suggestions for better relationships More...

    • Doctors Use iPads to Treat 'Lazy Eye,' With Mixed Results

      New studies show no clear, long-term advantages to so-called binocular gaming over traditional eye patching. More...

    • Live Fish at School May Reel in Future Scientists: Study

      Watching them develop teaches kids about biology, improves their attitude towards science, research finds. More...

    • Survival Lower for Night CPR Events in Children

      Hospitalized children have reduced survival odds with cardiopulmonary resuscitation events occurring at night compared to other times of the day, according to a study published online Nov. 7 in JAMA Pediatrics. More...

    • Many States Lack 'Return-to-Learn' Concussion Laws

      All U.S. states have "return-to-play" laws designed to protect young athletes who've suffered a concussion, but as of May 2016, only eight states had "return-to-learn" laws aimed at managing children's concussion recovery, according to a review published online Nov. 7 in Pediatrics. More...

    • Too Many Kids Still Eating Too Much Salt

      9 out of 10 exceed daily recommendations, CDC researchers find. More...

    • Downside to Exercise for City Kids: More Pollution

      Inhaling black carbon from traffic offsets benefits, environmental health specialist says. More...

    • Kids 6 and Older Should Be Screened for Obesity, Task Force Reaffirms

      Guideline fine-tunes 2010 recommendation. More...

    • Opioid Overdoses Have Nearly Tripled Among Kids, Teens

      Younger children 'eating them like candy,' while teens overdose while trying to get high, researcher says. More...

    • Smartphones, Tablets Keep Kids Buzzing at Bedtime

      Children with access to these devices don't get enough sleep, study finds. More...

    • Clean Home May Help Keep Kids' Asthma in Check

      Controlling allergens, household pollutants can reduce need for medication, pediatricians' group says. More...

    • Health Tip: Dress Kids in Safe Costumes

      Tips for a happier Halloween More...

    • Amitriptyline, Topiramate Don't Cut Pediatric Migraine vs Placebo

      For children and adolescents with migraine, amitriptyline and topiramate do not reduce headache frequency or headache-related disability more than placebo, according to a study published online Oct. 27 in the New England Journal of Medicine. The research was published to coincide with the annual meeting of the Child Neurology Society, held from Oct. 26 to 29 in Vancouver, Canada. More...

    • Parent-Child Screening Urged for Inherited Heart Condition

      People with familial hypercholesterolemia have higher risk of heart attack before 40, researchers say. More...

    • Health Tip: Pay Attention on Halloween

      Safety tips for walking trick-or-treaters More...

    • Childhood PTSD May Leave Imprint on Brain

      MRI detects variations in neural connections of earthquake survivors, Chinese researchers say. More...

    • More Kids and Teens Heading to ER With Headaches

      Study finds hospital admissions for head pain also up; reasons are unclear. More...

    • Tips for Keeping Halloween Safe and Fun

      Bobbing for apples, trick-or-treating can expose kids to potential hazards, health experts say. More...

    • State Laws May Be Key to Lowering Kids' Car Crash Deaths

      Study found more accidents happened in states with less stringent safe-driving regulations. More...

    • Many Adults Unaware That Using E-Cigarettes Can Hurt Kids

      Indoor use promotes harmful nicotine exposure, researchers say. More...

    • Health Tip: Supporting a Child Who Is Bullied

      What parents can do More...

    • Kids' Media Time Adds Up, Subtracts From Homework

      Interest in learning new things also shrinks with greater screen time, pediatricians find. More...

    • Pediatricians: Kids Need 'Media Use Plan' From Parents

      Suggestions include no screen time for those under 18 months, not using media as 'soothing tool.' More...

    • Be Aware of What You Share Online About Your Kids

      New review offers parents advice on how to be more careful with postings that could affect their children. More...

    • Snakebites a Rising Danger for U.S. Children

      Texas, Florida account for one-quarter of nation's attacks, study finds. More...

    • National School Lunch Program Serving Up Healthier Fare

      Since starting to offer more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, consumption of fat, salt dropped More...

    • Nurturing Childhood May Pay Off Decades Later

      Strong marriages in their 80s linked to earlier positive family experiences. More...

    • Foster Kids Face Higher Risk of Health Problems: Study

      They were even more vulnerable than children in low-income, single-parent families. More...

    • Health Tip: Kids Don't Need a Low-Fat Diet

      Here's why More...

    • How to Help a Child Who's Cyberbullied

      Expert shares common-sense tips for parents. More...

    • 6 Keys to a Safe, Allergy-Free Halloween

      These tips can ease parents' worries and help kids with food allergies or asthma enjoy the holiday. More...

    • Day Care Doesn't Encourage Weight Gain in Kids

      After other factors were weighed, analysis found no link. More...

    • Target Fast-Food Combo Meals to Cut Sugary Drinks for Kids: Study

      Researchers want chains to stop including the beverages with meal deals to reduce calorie intake. More...

    • How to Help Keep Your Kids Safe This Fall

      Remind children to take precautions at dusk to make sure they are visible to cars. More...

    • Most Low-Income Dads Stay Involved With Their Kids: Study

      Working hours may limit parent-child time, but these men aren't 'deadbeat dads,' research finds. More...

    • How 'Mindful Eating' Can Keep Kids Slim

      Step one, pediatrician says, is to examine emotional connection to food. More...

Share This

Resources